The Programme of practical seminars Phthisiology in 4th year medical students (pediatrics)

THE PROGRAMME
OF PRACTICAL SEMINARS
 “Phthisiology” in 4th year medical students №2 (pediatrics)

Topic
Hours
1.
The causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), structure, metabolism, pathogenesis and molecular determinants of virulence. Classification of Mycobacterium species. Epidemiological indicators of TB burden. Global and national TB epidemiology. TB transmission. Pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Immunity to TB. Clinical classification of tuberculosis. Latent TB infection. Risk groups. Primary and Post Primary TB (basic images and sequelae).


4
2.
Clinical presentation of TB. Cough management in primary care settings. Laboratory diagnostics of tuberculosis. Sputum AFB microscopy. Rules of specimen’s collection. Bacteriological and molecular methods of detection of M. tuberculosis. Benefits and drawbacks of phenotypic and genotypic lab methods. Chest radiography, CT scanning and MRI in TB detection. Descriptive terminology and types of imaging. Typical and atypical presentations of Pulmonary TB on a Chest X-Ray. Tuberculin Skin Test (TST). Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRA). Interpretation of TST and IGRA results. Other tools to confirm TB diagnosis. Clinical case analysis.



4
3.
Pulmonary, extrapulmonary, and combined localisation of tuberculosis. Generalised (milliary) TB. TB meningitis. TB of peripheral lymph nodes. Tuberculous pleurisy.
TB in children. BCG vaccination. Differences of TB disease in vaccinated and non-vaccinated children. Clinical case analysis.
4

4.
Clinical management of tuberculosis. Anti-TB medicines. Standardised and individualised regimens of treatment. Drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis: mono-, poly-, MDR and XDR-TB. Active monitoring and management of adverse events of anti-TB drugs. Recording standardized treatment outcomes. Directly Observed Therapy. Ambulatory and inpatient treatment of tuberculosis. Adherence to treatment. Surgical treatment of TB. Palliative care. Fighting TB stigma and discrimination. Clinical case analysis.

4
5.
Prevention of tuberculosis. Infection Control: administrative, engineering and respiratory protection levels. Contact Tracing. BCG Vaccination. Preventive chemotherapy. TB health care policy. Clinical case analysis.

4
6.
Trends in Tuberculosis/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Comorbidity. Management of TB/HIV co-infection. Antiretroviral Therapy for Patients with HIV and Active Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome. Clinical case analysis.


4
7.
Assessing co-morbidities and other factors which could affect outcomes of TB treatment: diabetes mellitus, pneumoconiosis, immunosuppressive medicines, anti-TNFα therapy, kidney disease, pregnancy.  Life-threatening complications of TB requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission: pneumothorax, lung hemorrhage, airway obstruction, anaphylaxis.


4

Module


Total
28

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